Depending on the purpose and duration of your stay in Germany you can either apply for a short-term "Schengen Visa" or for a long-term "National Visa".
If you plan to go to Germany for short amount of days (less than 90 days in 180 days) you need a Schengen Visa. (E.g. tourism, visiting family and friends, business trip)
If you plan to stay more than 90 days within 180 days you would need a National Visa (e.g. study, long term language training, Au Pair, Working Holiday)